Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium are two important medicinal plants of Araliaceae. The traditional medicinal part (root) has been widely used for many years. A large number of studies have shown that chemical components of non-medicinal parts of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium are similar to those of traditional medicinal parts, and have good biological functions. The comprehensive development and utilization of non-medicinal parts of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium are of great significance for the sustainable development of both industries, and the efficient utilization of the whole plant sets a a good example for the comprehensive development of other medicinal materials. Based on the research status of chemical composition, pharmacological activity and development and utilization of non-medicinal parts of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium, combined with the research results of our research group′s work practice, this paper analyzes the development and utilization of non-medicinal parts of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium, and puts forward the overall ideas and prospects for the development and utilization of non-medicinal parts of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium, so as to provide some reference for the efficient utilization of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium and the deep development of products.
In the present study, potato plants were cultivated in a perlite substrate, and the effects of acid treatment (pH 3 for 3 d) in different plant growth stages on characteristics of minituber formation and photosynthesis were investigated. Results showed that tuber formation and growth were optimal when 45-day-old plants were treated with acid solution. Compared with the control group, the number of tubers per plant and yield per plant increased by 110% and 82%, respectively, and the large-medium and medium-small minibubers reached the maximum; however, chlorophyll content (SPAD), net photosynthetic rate(Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci), actual quantum yield［Y(Ⅱ)］, electron transport rate(ETR) and photochemical quenching (qP) were significantly lower than those of the control group. After the acid treatment, SPAD, Tr and qP increased rapidly, and the levels of which were similar to those of the control group; photochemical efficiency (Fv / Fm), non-photochemical quenching(qN） and Ci during or after the acid treatment were not significantly different compared with the control group.
Based on the reconstructed optimal fertilization algorithm model (NFOA), the effects of applying nitrogen fertilizer on the utilization rate of maize fertilizer and the amount of soil nitrogen absorbed were studied. In 2016, five different nitrogen levels were set up through field experiments. The amount of pure nitrogen was 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg/hm2, respectively, which were expressed as N0, N1, N2, N3 and N4. The changes of nitrogen fertilizer utilization rate, nitrogen fertilizer agronomic efficiency and soil nitrogen uptake by maize were discussed. The 2016 experimental results were validated in adjacent plots in 2017. The experimental results show that: in all 2016 treatments with basal fertilizer only, the yield increased with the increase of nitrogen application rate, but there was no significant difference in agronomic efficiency, and the average value was 21.56 kg/kg; Topdressing agronomic efficiency decreased gradually with the increase of topdressing amount, and was the highest under N1 treatment, which was 14.01 kg/kg. With the increase of nitrogen topdressing, the total nitrogen uptake of maize increased significantly, but the percentage of total nitrogen uptake by soil in maize decreased, and the lowest was 57.15% under N4 treatment. The quadratic curve equation can be used to fit the ratio of nitrogen topdressing utilization rate and nitrogen topdressing rate. With the increase of nitrogen uptake, topdressing utilization rate of maize shows a gradually decreasing trend. In field trials in 2017, the agronomic utilization rate of topdressing for both varieties of maize was higher than that of basic fertilizers; the amount of nitrogen absorbed by maize and the utilization rate of topdressing gradually decreased with the increase of topdressing amount, showing a similar trend to the 2016 test. The amount of nitrogen absorbed by maize from the soil cannot be ignored, and topdressing utilization rate will vary with the amount of topdressing fertilizer. Therefore, we should comprehensively consider the effects of nitrogen topdressing on agronomic efficiency, topdressing efficiency and soil nitrogen uptake, and further provide a theoretical basis for constructing the optimal fertilization algorithm model (NFOA) to achieve precise fertilization.
In this study, electroantennogram (EAG) and Y tube olfactomcter were used to screen the attractive and repellent compounds from 8 kinds of volatiles from soybean leaves on Colposcelis signata adults to provide theoretical basis for exploring biological agents to prevent this pest. EAG bioassay results showed that the relative values of EAG response increased with the increase of volatile concentration and the female was stronger than the male. At the same concentration, the relative value of EAG response for 1-octene-3-ol was the largest, followed by 3-octanol and (Z)-3-hexene-1-ol. As for behavioral response, there were differences among lure rate or repellent rate of different volatiles at the same concentration. 1-octen-3-alcohol, 3-octanol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 3-octanone, methyl jasmonate and N, N-dimethyl cacetamide had significant attractive effects. With the increase of concentration,lure rate increased. 1-octene-3-ol at 10-1 mol/L was the most attractive to females and males, which were 90.00% and 84.45%, respectively. Repellent rate of hexanal was the highest, which was significantly higher than that of other plant volatiles. β-caryophyllene at low concentration of 10-5-10-4mol/L could attract females and males, but at high concentration of 10-2 -10-1 mol/L, it had significant repellent effect.
To provide a visible material for the study of infection and control of fusarium root rot of panax, through observing the optimal spores germination time, the composition of lyases and the type of osmotic pressure stabilizer, the preparation and transformation technologies of ginseng root rot pathogen-Fusarium oxysporum′s protoplast were studied in the experiment. The results revealed that the optimal conditions were young hyphae obtained in YEPD cultured for 11 h, hydrolysis temperature 37 ℃, speed of the shaker 180 r/min, and osmotic stabilizer 0.7 mol/L NaCl. When hydrolysates containing 0.01 g/mL driselase, 0.03 g/mL lysozyme, 0.02 g/mL cellulose and 0.005 g/mL snailase were used to hydrolyze 0.25 g young hyphae, the hyphae harvested were the most favorable for the formation and release of protoplasts, with a total yield of 2.8×107 protoplasts/mL. The exogenous DNA was successfully transferred to F. oxysporum by the PEG-mediated transformation and the transformation frequency of 0083 was 1 400 transformants per mg DNA, which showed hygromycin resistance and fluorescence signal. After six generations of subculture, the representative transformant FOG1 showed stable morphology, sporulation and fluorescence. In conclusion, PEG-mediated protoplast transformation is quite stable and efficient.
Screening and identification of strains with high-yield lignocellulose-degrading enzymes are of great significance for the comprehensive utilization of corn stalk biomass resources. Three strains CM12, CM13 and CM16 obtained before using protoplast mutagenesis technique were used as experimental materials. Preliminary screening of dominant mutant strains was carried out by antagonism test and growth rate test. Then, screening of the mutant strains with high-yield lignocellulose-degrading enzymes were carried out through the determination of laccase, manganese peroxidase, xylanase and cellulase activities, and its identification was performed by ITS-PCR technology. The results showed that the three strains were antagonistic to the control strain. Strain CM13 had the highest growth rate in PDA solid medium, higher than that of strain CM12, strain CM16 and the control strain. Strain CM13 in pure corn stalk liquid medium had the highest laccase, manganese peroxidase, xylanase and cellulase activities, reaching 121.23 U/L, 144.11 U/L and 793.38 U/L and 238.92 U/L, respectively , which increased by 13.07%, 12.90%, 19.93% and 30.22%, respectively, compared with the control strain. ITS-PCR results showed that strain CM13 mutated at the molecular level.
In order to investigate the effects of sulfuric acid pretreatment on the chemical properties and ammonia volatilization of White Fungus Chaff, dilute sulfuric acid solution with different concentrations was used to preprocess wood ear bran. Changes of the chemical properties and ammonia volatilization during fermentation were analyzed. The experiment was conducted with four treatments, 0 (A0), 0.1 (A1), 0.3 (A2) and 0.5 (A3)mol/L of acidification treatment concentration, and 15 d fermentation of all. The results show that during the composting process, the highest temperature of A0 was 56 ℃ and maintained within 55-56 ℃ from the 5th to the 10th day; the high temperature period of A1 treatment was 8 days, and its highest temperature was 59 ℃; the highest temperature of A2 was 48 ℃; there was no significant temperature change in A3. At the end of composting, compared with pH value of A0 with no sulfuric acid addition (6.63), pH value of A1,A2 and A3 decreased by 1.37, 4.73 and 5.105, respectively, and EC value of A0, A1, A2 and A3 was 0.163, 0.278,0.415 and 0.603 mS/cm, respectively. Water content of A0, A1, A2 and A3 decreased by 42.73%, 43.07%, 33.72% and 22.00% compared with the initial stage. Organic matter content of A0, A1, A2 and A3 decreased by 5.55%, 8.59%, 12.91% and 2.15%, respectively. N content decreased first and then increased with the extension of the maturity time, which increased by 40.50%, 32.70%, 18.20% and 0, respectively. The trend of P and K content was basically the same, and A1 content had the largest increasing trend, which was 66.7% and 80%, respectively. A0 was in the second place, with an increase of 56.67% and 60%, respectively; A2 increased slightly, with an increase of 5% and 24%, respectively; In A3 treatment，phosphorus content decreased by 42.22% and potassium content increased by 12%, respectively. Ammonia volatilization accumulation of A0, A1, A2 and A3 was 1.01, 0.81, 0.18 and -0.11 g/( kg·h), respectively, and compared with A0, the loss of N in A1, A2 and A3 decreased by 72%, 96% and 113%, respectively, indicating that ammonia volatilization was significantly decreased after acid pretreatment, which accelerated the degradation of organic matter and the content of N, P and K increased. Sulfuric acid pretreatment can shorten composting period, improve compost quality and reduce N loss, and the treatment with 0.1 mol/L (A1) has the best effect.
Soil salinization has become a worldwide problem. The content of insoluble phosphate in salinized soil is relatively high. The use of soluble phosphorus microorganisms to decompose insoluble phosphorus for plant absorption and utilization has become a hot issue in recent years, hoping to reduce the dependence on chemical fertilizers in agricultural life. Penicillium funicuiosum P1 has a strong ability to dissolve phosphate, and the amount of dissolving phosphate can reach 1 022.77 mg/L. In this paper, phosphate solubilizating ability, pH and biomass changes of P1 under salt stress and its effect on the growth of Chinese wildrye were studied. The results show that strain P1 can survive at 15% NaCl concentration, and it has high phosphate solubilizating ability in high salt concentration liquid culture conditions. When salt concentration is 6%, P1 phosphate solubilizating ability can reach 706.52 mg/L, which is twice of Aspergillus CT1 at the same salt concentration. In addition, strain P1 is beneficial to the growth of Chinese wildrye roots under salt stress.
In order to improve the yield of ginseng and realize the objective of green and ecological cultivation of ginseng, the orthogonal test method was used in this study. Bacillus vallismortis SZ-4 is a biocontrol bacterium of ginseng and has the effects of preventing disease and promoting the growth of ginseng. This study inoculated B. vallismortis SZ-4 into corn straw compost and developed the biological organic fertilizer of ginseng by optimizing the conditions of solidstate fermentation. The effect of growth promotion was evaluated by pot experiment. The results indicated that the optimal fermentation condition of solidstate fermentation were as follows: culture time 4 d, inoculation quantity 10%, water content 45%, tossing times 1 time/48 h, culture temperature 32 ℃, urea added to C/N 15. Under these fermentation conditions, the amount of B.vallismortis SZ-4 in the biological organic fertilizer could reach 2.011×109 CFU/g. Pot experiment showed that the biological organic fertilizer treatment (BOF) had better effect on growth promotion than the organic fertilizer treatment (OF) and ck. The fresh weight of ginseng root of BIO treatment was 26.68%-51.09% higher than that of ck treatment from June to August, and 29.29%-66.91% higher than that of OF treatment. The dry weight of ginseng root of BIO treatment was 22.92%-42.29% higher than that of ck treatment, and 4,18%-33.11% higher than that of OF treatment. In summary, the optimization of solid-state fermentation of bio-organic fertilizer can improve its quality greatly, and the bio-organic fertilizer can promote the growth of ginseng.
In order to solve the environmental problems caused by the growing solid livestock excrement and the negative effects of long-term application of inorganic fertilizers on soil fertility, to combine the advantages of chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizer and microbial fertilizer to develop a new bio-organic-inorganic compound fertilizer is one of the fertilizer development directions. Resin coated urea was used as a carrier and bio-organic fertilizer was used as coating material to prepare bio-organic-inorganic compound fertilizer by using drum granulator. The fertilizer efficiency of bio-organic-inorganic compound fertilizer was studied by maize pot experiment. The physiological characteristics of maize were measured regularly and soil samples were collected. The physical and chemical properties, microbial content, enzyme activity, soil respiration, nitrification and denitrification rate of soil were detected and analyzed. The results showed that bio-organic-inorganic compound fertilizer treatment can significantly improve soil microbial activity compared with the common urea treatment. The contents of soil bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes increased by 2 855.88%, 4 414.14% and 1 153.16%, respectively. The various activities of enzymes in soil are also increased significantly. The rates of nitrification, denitrification and respiration in soil are decreased, and the yield of maize increases by 15.41%.
Taking drilling mud (N) contaminated soil as research object, the effects of different corn straw addition on soil enzyme activity and soil physical and chemical properties were studied by indoor culture test. The results showed that when drilling mud content is more than 30%, the total salt of soil is between 1.13-1.38 g/kg, which belongs to mild salinization; With the increase of the amount of straw (J), soil pH and total salt decrease, and when drilling mud content in soil is 50%, the pH of adding 5% straw (J5N50) treatment is 1.37 lower than that of non-added straw (J0N50), and the decrease of total salt is relatively small. The increase of straw addition can significantly increase soil organic carbon content, and the organic carbon content of J5N50 reaches 24.09 g/kg, 48.31% higher than that of J0N50. With the increase of straw addition, the activity of three enzymes in soil increases.The activity of three enzymes is positively correlated with total phosphorus, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and alkali hydrolyzable nitrogen in soil, and negatively correlated with soil pH and total salt. It indicates that the activities of the three soil enzymes can reflect the change rule of soil physical and chemical properties to a certain extent; There is no significant correlation between the three soil enzymes and soil organic carbon content.
In order to reveal the effects of terraces built in different seasons and planted with different plants on the erosion characteristics of terraces, the method of constructing microrunoff area was used to observe runoff, soil loss and shear strength of terraces built in different seasons and planted with different plants, and the differences and characteristics of erosion of newly built terraces in black soil area were explored. The results show that: Soil loss of terraces built in different seasons is Wspring>Wautumn; Runoff of terraces planted with three plants is Qcauliflower>Qalfalfa>Qfalse indigo bushand soil loss is Wcauliflower>WAlfalfa>Wfalse indigo bush; Effect of water preservation and soil preservation is false indigo bush>alfalfa>cauliflower; Relationship between shear strength of terraces and soil loss showed a negative correlation, and shear strength gradually stabilized with the increase of rainfall times.
IGF-1 gene is thought to be related to the “proportional dwarfism” of minipigs, the structure of which is complex and the Cterminal of which can produce three types of E-peptides (Ea, Eb and Ec) due to variable splicing. In this study, Large White and Bama pigs were chosen as representatives of large and small pigs. Identification and relative expression were detected in large and small pigs by PCR and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that there were 3 types of E peptides in large and small pigs, among which Ea was highly expressed in minipigs (P<0.05), especially in liver, heart，lung and spleen tissues; Eb was in the liver of minipigs. The expression level in cartilage tissue was higher, but in heart issue, the expression level was higher in large pigs, while the expression level in other tissues was lower; Ec was similar to Ea in large and small pigs. Compared with the three E peptides, the expression level of Ec was the highest, the expression level of Ea was the second, and the expression level of Eb was the lowest. The results showed that the high expression of Ea and Ec was not conducive to the growth of pig body length, which provides a more comprehensive theoretical basis for the analysis of the application of small pigs and small pigs.
In order to explore the characteristics of lake water environment ecosystem in Chagan lake, Jilin province, we investigated and analyzed the changes and rules of species and density of lake organisms in October(winter), April (spring), July (summer) and September (autumn) from 2017 to 2018. The survey included phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos. The results showed that there are 74 species of phytoplankton in Chagan lake, belonging to 8 phyla and 61 genera. Scenedesmus is dominant in summer and Chlorella is dominant in winter. There are 29 species of zooplankton, belonging to 17 genera, 12 species of benthic fauna, and the species of benthic fauna are few in the middle of the Chagan Lake, only Limnodrilus.
The spray drying process of nattokinase from fermented soybean dregs was optimized and its stability was explored. On the basis of singlefactor test, three independent variables (protective category, inlet temperature and peristaltic pump speed) were selected using BoxBehnken to design a response surface experiment, which constructs a regression model with high degree of fitting. The parameters of the optimized spray drying process are as follows: protective category is trehalose, inlet temperature is 152 ℃, peristaltic pump speed is 378 mL/h. Under the conditions, nattokinase activity can reach 236 278 FU/g. Nattokinase preserved as dry at the temperature of 0 ℃, 4 ℃, room temperature (18 ℃) and 37 ℃ had a relative stable activity after spray drying, while the activity gradually reduced as the time extending. The stability of nattokinase was the highest when trehalose was used as a protective agent.
The mechanical property indexes (internal bonding strength and 2 h water swelling rate) should be within the ideal range of insulation materials range for the study of the performance of corn straw insulation board. In this study, we selected sizing amount, straw board thickness and hot pressing temperature as the factors related to the mechanical property indexes of straw board to carry out a ternary quadratic regression orthogonal test design, and analyzed the relationship between the selected factors and the mechanical property indexes of straw board. The data obtained from the test were input into the DPS data processing platform, and the analysis software of DPS was used to regress the test results and analyze the trend of the effects of single factors on each mechanical property index. Through the test and the analysis of the test results, it can be seen that the factors of sizing amount and hot pressing temperature have a significant effect on the test index of internal bond strength; sizing amount, straw board thickness and hot pressing temperature have a significant effect on the test index of 2 h water absorption and swelling rate. The better combination of results obtained was: 12.3% sizing amount, 11.8 cm straw board thickness, and 180 ℃ hot pressing temperature. At this time, the pressed insulation board meets the mechanical properties of the insulation material and saves processing cost. The analysis of this combined mathematical model shows that the resulting regression model fits well and has practical significance.
Copyright 2009 Journal of Jilin Agricultural Univerisity
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