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Journal of Jilin Agricultural University
2021, Vol.43 Num.6
Online: 2021-12-29


 
627 WANG Guiqin, LIU Linlin, CHEN Xiumei*
Mechanism of Endogenous Ammonia in Fish and Its Nutritional Regulation Measures Hot!

In the process of aquaculture, too high protein level of feed will lead to high nitrogen content in fish excreta, eutrophication of water body, and serious water pollution. However, the metabolic mechanism of endogenous ammonia and its nutritional regulation measures have not been reported. Therefore, this paper summarized the production mechanism of fish endogenous ammonia, ammoniatolerance strategy, and the corresponding nutritional regulation measures of reducing ammonia emission, which is of great significance to aquatic animal health and will provide a theoretical basis for reducing the concentration of ammonia in the water environment and improving the growth performance of fish.

2021 Vol. 43 (6): 627-632 [Abstract] ( 13 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1662KB] ( 0 )
633 DENG Jinyang, YANG Hang, WANG Yuqi, SUN Zhidong, ZHAO Rengui*
Correlation Analysis of Popping Rate with Main Agronomic Traits of Popcorn
Twenty eight popcorn hybridized combinations are taken as the research objects to test the correlation between popping rate and 15 agronomic and quality traits, including caulom weight, ear thickness, caulom thickness, hundredgrain weight, barren tip length, ear weight, ear length, grains per row, expansion and popping multiple, ear to row number, fat content, protein content, starch content and water content. Path analysis is implemented for the relation between popping rate and agronomic traits. Quadratic polynomial stepwise regression analysis is implemented for the relation between popping rate and such traits as caulom thickness, hundredgrain weight, grains per row, ear thickness and water content. The results shows ear weight, expansion and popping multiple, and protein content can directly influence popping rate, while ear thickness, caulom thickness, grains per row, water content and fat content can indirectly influence popping rate. Therefore, popping rate and expansion multiple can be improved at the same time.
2021 Vol. 43 (6): 633-641 [Abstract] ( 9 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1101KB] ( 0 )
642 SUN Minghao,GUO Yuhang,LI Jian,ZHENG Jun,YANG Weiguang
Transcriptome Analysis of Maize Viviparous Mutant vp like4

Viviparity is one of the major disasters threatening food security. To explore the molecular mechanism of regulating maize viviparity, F2 segregating population derived from the hybrid of maize viviparous vplike 4 with inbred lines Zheng58 and Mo17 was used as materials, the differentially expressed genes between wild type and corresponding mutants were compared by transcriptome sequencing (RNA SEQ) and bioinformatics, and the functions of the differentially expressed genes and related metabolic pathways were analyzed. The results showed that there were 3 376 differentially expressed genes (DEGS) in the mutant, of which 2 252 were upregulated and 1 124 were down regulated. GO (Gene ontology) functional enrichment analysis indicated that 2 151 DEGs were annotated and enriched in 716 GO taxonomic entries, which were mainly correlated to metabolism and stress response. Referring to KEGG database, the metabolic pathways of differential genes were analyzed. It was found that differential genes were significantly enriched in plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, photosynthesis and other pathways. The above results show that DEGs, GO taxonomic entries and metabolic pathways were closely related to viviparity of maize. These results will provide important data supports for investigating viviparous genes and related regulatory network comprehensively.

2021 Vol. 43 (6): 642-650 [Abstract] ( 10 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1899KB] ( 0 )
651 JIN Shiyou, LIU Chang, JIAO Peng, FEI Jianbo, MA Yiyong, GUAN Shuyan
Cloning and Bioinformatics Analysis of ZmSAMDC Gene Related to Maize Cold Resistance Hot!

In this experiment, the SAMDC gene in maize was obtained by homologous alignment in rice, and the protein structure and physical and chemical properties of the gene were analyzed by bioinformatics software. The results showed that ZmSAMDC is a hydrophobic nontransmembrane protein with no signal peptide structure. The molecular weight of ZmSAMDC protein is 43 28312 D, the isoelectric point is 478, and the number of amino acids is 398. The halflife in E. coli is predicted to be greater than 10 hours, and the protein instability coefficient is 3832. The protein is a stable protein. ZmSAMDC protein has 44 potential phosphorylation sites, including 23 serine (Ser) phosphorylation sites, 12 threonine (Thr) phosphorylation sites, 9 proline (Tyr) phosphorylation sites, and phosphoric acid mainly concentrated on threonine, serine and proline residues. The secondary structure of ZmSAMDC protein consists of α-helix, extended chain, random coil and β-turn. The ZmSAMDC domain is the SAM_decarbox domain, and the subcellular cells are mainly localized on the extracellular matrix. This study provides new information for the study of the structure and function of the new maize gene, SAMDC, and lays a foundation for the study of ZmSAMDC gene.

2021 Vol. 43 (6): 651-656 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 2012KB] ( 0 )
657 LU Zhongshuang, SHI Andi, LIU Siyan,LI Guanglong, LIU Jinfeng,GUAN Shuyan, QU Jing
Optimization of Genetic Transformation System of Soybean Cotyledonary Node Hot!

In order to optimize the genetic transformation receptor system of soybean, the affecting factors of seed germination and adventitious bud induction were investigated by orthogonal test design on soybean varieties JN18, JN28 and JN54. The results showed that the optimal condition for soybean seed germination is to select JN28 soybean sterilized by sodium hypochlorite solution for 10 min, and inoculated on MS+0.2 mg/L 6-BA germination medium (pH 6). The optimal condition for adventitious bud induction of soybean cotyledon node is to inoculate the seeds germinated for 5 d on MS+3.0 mg/L 6-BA + 0.2 mg/L IBA medium. According to the obtained optimal conditions, the Agrobacteriummediated transformation for JN28 was applied, and the positive transformation rate of PCR was 5.56%. This result lays foundation for the identification of soybean gene function and the acquisition of new genetically modified soybean lines with independent intellectual property rights. 

2021 Vol. 43 (6): 657-663 [Abstract] ( 11 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 2467KB] ( 0 )
664 SUN Daping, LU Qian, WANG Peng, BAI Qingrong, ZANG Liansheng
Pathogenicity of Four Pathogenic Fungi to Myzus persicae and Trialeurodes vaporariorum Hot!

This study isolated and purified two strains JL-006 and JL-007 firstly from naturally entomopathogeninfected Myzus persicae and Trialeurodes vaporariorum, which were identified to be Lecanicillium longisporum and Lecanicillium lecanii by morphology and rDNA-ITS sequence analysis. To assess the biological control potential, the pathogenicity of JL-006 and JL-007 with another two fungal strains Lecanicillium attenuatum JL-003 and Beauveria bassiana JL-005 to 3rdinstar nymphs of M. persicae and T. vaporariorum were determined using the dipping method. The results indicated that the virulence was higher at the concentration of 1.0×108 conidia/mL than at 1.0×1.5 conidia/mL. The strains B. bassiana JL-005 and L. longisporum JL-006 were promising candidates for biological control of M. persicae with the higher mortalities of 71.8% and 74.5%, and the lower LT50 values of 5.6 d and 5.5 d, respectively, after inoculation for 10 days. Meanwhile, the strains B. bassiana JL-005 and L. lecanii JL-007 were promising candidates for biological control of T. vaporariorum with the higher mortalities of 82.3% and 80.5%, and lower LT50 values of 5.4 d and 5.1 d, respectively. Our results provide a technical support for simultaneously suppressing several insect pests by a pathogenic fungus in greenhouse. 

2021 Vol. 43 (6): 664-672 [Abstract] ( 8 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 2277KB] ( 0 )
673 CHEN Yanyan, YU Bo, WANG Siming,ZHANG Wanying, LI Xiugang, LI Yinqing
Mechanism of the Effects of Molting Extracts on Hela Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis
By detecting the effects of Ailanthus altissim bark extract on the viability of cervical cancer Hela cells, and observing the regulatory effects of drugs on apoptosis, cell cycle, autophagy and related factors, we preliminarily studied the molecular mechanism of cell apoptosis. Hela cells were cultured in vitro, and cervical cancer Hela cells were treated with different mass concentrations of Ailanthus altissima bark extract. MTT method was used to detect the effect of drugs on the proliferation of Hela cells; Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining flow cytometry was used to detect the effect of Ailanthus altissima  bark extract on Hela cell apoptosis; PI single staining flow cytometry was used to detect the effect of Ailanthus altissima bark extract on the cell cycle of Hela; qRT-PCR was used to detect the effect of Ailanthus altissima bark extract on the expression of Bcl-2/Bax mRNA; Western-blot method was used to determine the expression of Hela cell apoptosis factors Bcl-2, Bax and autophagyrelated factor proteins. MTT results showed that Ailanthus altissima bark extract could inhibit the proliferation of cervical cancer Hela cells in a dosedependent manner (P<0.05); After treating Hela cells with the mass concentration of 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL Ailanthus altissima bark extract for 48 hours, the proliferation inhibition rate and apoptosis rate of Hela cells increased significantly, and were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05); The results of PI single staining flow cytometry showed that Ailanthus altissima bark extract induced block Hela cell division in G2/M phase (P<0.05); The results of qRT-PCR showed that Bax mRNA expression increased, and Bcl-2 mRNA expression decreased in a dosedependent manner (P<0.05); Western-blot results showed that Bax protein expression increased, Bcl-2 protein expression decreased, and LC3BⅡ/Ⅰ value increased in a dosedependent manner (P<0.05). Ailanthus altissima bark extract can significantly inhibit the proliferation of cervical cancer Hela cells, by regulating the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 apoptotic genes, blocking the G2/M phase of cells, promoting cell apoptosis, and promoting autophagy in cervical cancer cells by regulating the expression of LC3B gene. 
2021 Vol. 43 (6): 673-678 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1662KB] ( 0 )
679 FENG Tianqi, WANG Chunli, WANG Siyao, WU Hongyan, WANG Zhaoguo, HAO Linlin
Preparation of Chitosan/Pluronic Composite Thermo Sensitive Hydrogel Hot!

Pluronic is a classical thermosensitive polymer that achieves solgel transition with the change of temperature.However, the structure of hydrogel is unstable, and it is difficult to preserve long, and has a single function in wound dressing application. In this research, the thermosensitive composite hydrogel was synthesized by mixing pluronic F127 and F68 with an antibacterial component CS which can also be used for irregular wound healing. The temperature sensitivity, microscopic morphology, antibacterial activity and the fit to the wound were investigated by test tube inversion, SEM, bacterial coating method and wound model. The results showed that the composite hydrogel was thermosensitive, and formed gelatin at body temperature. The F127/F68/CS hydrogel showed a structure feature of high porosity and 3dimensional networks. The antibacterial was gradually increased with the increase of CS. And the hydrogel could adhere tightly on the wound. F127/F68/CS composite hydrogel is expected to reduce wound infection and promote wound healing due to its convenience of preparation, temperature sensitivity, suitable porous structure, antibacterial properties and good wound adhesion. 

2021 Vol. 43 (6): 679-684 [Abstract] ( 8 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 2484KB] ( 0 )
685 ZANG Xueli,CHEN Guang
Correlation Between Structural Changes and Gel Strength of Transglutaminase Cross-linked Soybean Protein Isolate Hot!

In order to study the relationship between the structural changes and gel properties of transglutaminase crosslinked soybean protein isolate (SPI), the correlation between SPI structural changes and gel strength after crosslinking was studied by SPSS software Person analysis. The results showed that SPI structural characteristics changed after cross linking of SPI with transglutaminase, hydrophobic groups were exposed and surface hydrophobicity was increased by 35.9%. The content of surface sulfydryl was decreased by 24.8%, the content of disulfide bond was increased by 10.3%, and the content of free amino was reduced by 73.8%. The results of correlation study showed that surface hydrophobicity levels were positively correlated with gel strength, and sulfhydryl content was negatively correlated with gel strength. Disulfide bond was significantly positively related to gel strength and the content of free amino and gel strength had significant negative correlation. The four structural characteristics all affect gel strength, and hydrophobicity and disulfide bond on the surface are beneficial to improving gel strength.

2021 Vol. 43 (6): 685-689 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1094KB] ( 0 )
690
Protective Effect of Extracts of Coriolus versicolor Schisandra chinensis on Acute Alcoholicinduced Liver Injury in Mice
The study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of the extracts of Coriolus versicolor Schisandra chinensis (CSE) on acute alcoholicinduced liver injury in mice. The acute alcoholicinduced liver injury model of ICR mice was established. The liver pathological changes were observed by H&E staining. The protective effects of CSE on acute alcoholicinduced liver injury in mice were determined by the levels of ALT, AST, MDA, TG, T-CHO, LDL-C and HDL-C in serum, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and MDA in liver tissue. The results showed that CSE could significantly improve liver cell exfoliation and fatty degeneration caused by alcohol. Moreover, CSE could effectively improve oxidative stress in mice, which decreased the activities of ALT, AST and the content of MDA, TG, T-CHO and LDL-C, and increased the content of HDL-C in serum; at the same time, CSE decreased the content of MDA and increased the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in liver tissue. This indicated that CSE can alleviate the acute alcoholicinduced liver injury, and the medium dose groups are the best.
2021 Vol. 43 (6): 690-696 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 2002KB] ( 0 )
697 XUE Yuchen, LEI Xiujuan, ZHANG Hao, WANG Yingping
Distribution of Saponins in Flower Buds of American Ginseng in Different Growth Periods and Determination of the Suitable Harvesting Time
A novel highresolution method based on orbitrap fusion mass spectrometry coupled with ultra high performance liquid chromatography was used to qualify saponins in the flower buds of American ginseng, while the saponin content at 4 stages during flower development and in different parts of the flower buds were analyzed through relative quantification. A total of 49 saponins were detected from the 70% ethanol extracts of the flower buds. The results of quantification analysis showed that the total amount of these saponins decreases with the progress of flower development. Several single saponins, such as ginsenosides Rg1, mRg1 and Rb1, have a slight increase respectively between the maturing stage and the blossom stage of growth, yet still lower than those in the early stage(emerging stage). For the distribution of saponins in different parts of the flower buds, we found that petals and stalks contain much more saponins. Taking drying rate, saponin content and yield into comprehensive considertaion, we conclude that flower buds of American ginseng are suitable to be picked about two weeks after the budding period and before the harvest period.
2021 Vol. 43 (6): 697-704 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1889KB] ( 0 )
705 ZUO Xiangxi,SUN Hai,JIN Qiao,WU Chen, QIAN Jiaqi,ZHANG Zhenghai, ZHANG Yayu
Evaluation of Soil Fertility of Cultivated Panax ginseng in Farmland Hot!

In order to clarify the soil nutrients and comprehensive fertility of Panax ginseng cultivated in farmland and provide reference for rational planting ginseng, 14 soil nutrient indexes of 42 soil samples from 14 counties and cities in ginseng producing areas were studied, the soil fertility status was comprehensively evaluated by principal component analysis and fuzzy mathematics membership function model, and the comprehensive index value (IFI) of soil fertility was calculated. The results showed that the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, alkalihydrolyzed nitrogen, available potassium, available iron and manganese were sufficient. The average of IFI value of soil fertility index of farmland ginseng in field producing area was 0.71, and most of them were in gradeⅠand grade Ⅱ. Among them, the soil fertility accounted for 66.67% of the sampling area, and the overall level of soil was good.

2021 Vol. 43 (6): 705-712 [Abstract] ( 10 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1095KB] ( 0 )
713 DING Yihang,HoaiThuong Do,ZHAO Zijun,LI Xiang,LONG Zhenhua, LI Mingtang
Low Temperature Remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil by Corynebacterium glutamicum DC1 and Its Stability Hot!

Psychrotolerant bacteria, which can induce carbonate precipitation of heavy metals at low temperature, have important application potential in the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil in cold area. However, there is a lack of research on remediation and stability of various heavy metal contaminated soil. In this study, the immobilization of four heavy metals by a psychrotolerant carbonate mineralizing bacteria (Corynebacterium glutamicum DC1) and its stability in soil were studied. The results showed that the bacterial culture of strain DC1 could transform exchangeable Cd, Pb, Cu and Ni into carbonate bound through inducing carbonate precipitation with the conversion ratio of 79.8%, 72.6%, 39.9% and 33.6%, respectively in soil, resulting in the reduction of te available Cd,Pb,Cu and Ni by 90.5%, 83.4%, 35.1% and 36.6%,respectively, together with the increase of soil pH. Soil acidification decreased the stability of Cu and Ni by strain DC1, but there was no significant effect on Pb and Cd. Under the conditions of simulated dry and paddy soil and fertilizer application, there was no significant release of Pb and Cd in carbonate precipitates induced by strain DC1 in the soil, and the soil available Pb and Cd were not significantly increased after 30 days of incubation. The above results indicate that strain DC1 could be used for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil through inducing carbonate precipitate, especially for Pb and Cd contaminated soil. However, for Cu and Ni, more attention should be paid to soil acidification.

2021 Vol. 43 (6): 713-720 [Abstract] ( 8 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1267KB] ( 0 )
721 SHI Chunyu, SONG Leilei, LIU Kewei
Pollution Control Modes and Countermeasures of Livestock and Poultry Breeding in Jilin Province
With the continuous improvement of people′s living standards, the increasing demand for meat products has led to the rapid development of largescale livestock and poultry breeding industry, which has brought tremendous pressure on environmental pollution prevention and control. This paper analyzes the industrial status and pollution status of animal husbandry in Jilin province, summarizes the current treatment modes for livestock and poultry breeding, deeply analyzes some problems in the prevention and control of livestock and poultry breeding in Jilin province, and proposes corresponding prevention and control countermeasures, with the purpose of providing scientific basis for the coordinated and sustainable development of animal husbandry and environmental protection in Jilin province.
2021 Vol. 43 (6): 721-726 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1145KB] ( 0 )
727 YANG Haitian,CHE Dongsheng,JIANG Hailong,ZHANG Qi,CAO Kangning,WU Jiayong
Effects of Supplementation of Fermented Corn Stalk on Nutrient Digestibility,Meat Quality and Growth Performance of Songliao Black Swine Hot!

Fermented corn stalk (FCS) was used to replace the basic diets and the effects of dietary nutrient levels on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, slaughter performance, meat quality, and economic benefits of different growth stages of Songliao black swine were studied to determine the appropriate level of substitution for fermented corn stalk. A total of 96 healthy Songliao black pigs with an average body weight of (60.52±4.59) kg were randomly divided into 4 groups with 3 replicates in each group and 8 pigs per replicate. The test was divided into two fattening stages: fattening stage 1 (60-90 kg) and fattening stage 2 (90-120 kg). Group 1 represents the control group and pigs in this group were fed the basal diet. Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 were the trial groups and pigs in these groups were fed with 6%, 12% and 18% fermented corn stalk, respectively. The experimental period lasted for 80 days (40 days +40 days). At the end of the experiment, the growth performance, slaughter performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality of Songliao black swine were tested. The results showed as follows: The final body weight and average daily weight gain of group 2 were significantly higher than those of group 4 (P<0.05). In addition, the feed conversation ratio of group 1 and group 2 was significantly lower (P<0.05) than group 3 and group 4. The digestibility of crude protein and crude fat in group 2 increased by 2.27% and 1.33% compared with group 1. The digestibility of crude fiber in group 1 and group 2 was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that in group 3 and group 4. The digestibility of neutral detergent fiber in group 1 was significantly higher than group 4 (P<0.05). The difference in the slaughter rate was not significant (P>0.05) in each group and the back fat thickness decreased with the increase of FCS addition. The loss of drip in 24 hours was lower in group 2, which was significantly lower than that in group 3 (P<0.05). The rate of cooked meat in group 1 was not significantly different from that in group 2. Calculation and analysis of economic benefits show that the feed cost of all the groups increased with the increase of FCS addition, but the economic benefits of group 2 was the highest. The economic benefits of each pig in group 2 was higher than group 1 by 14.17 yuan. In summary: the use of 6% FCS to replace the basic diet may adjust the nutritional levels of the diet, and hence improve the growth performance, economic benefits, feed nutrient digestibility, and meat quality of Songliao black swine. 

2021 Vol. 43 (6): 727-733 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1098KB] ( 0 )
734 JIN Shengnan,SHU Huiping,ZHANG Dongxing,KANG Yuanhuan, SHAN Xiaofeng,QIAN Aidong
Stress Resistance and Growth Characteristics of Two Strains from Swine Lactobacillus

The purpose of this study is to analyze and investigate stress resistance and growth characteristics of Lactobacillus amylovorus L-102 and Lactobacillus johnsonii L-76 from swine, and to provide a theoretical basis for further in vitro studies of lactic acid bacteria. Acidbase tolerance, bile tolerance, trypsin tolerance, adhesiveness, bacteriostatic ability, acid production ability, growth curve and pathogenicity of Lactobacillus L-102 and L-76 were measured and analyzed. The results showed that Lactobacillus L-102 and L-76 exhibited resistance to acidbase environment with pH values of 2-11, and could tolerate 0.1%-0.2% bile salts and 1% trypsin in growth medium. The two Lactobacillus strains had certain adhesion to IPEC-J2 cell and inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, the range of acid production of Lactobacillus L-102 and L-76 is 4.10-4.30. After 4 hours of culture, it entered the logarithmic phase of growth. The viable count achieved 107 CFU/mL when Lactobacillus L-102 and L-76 were sustained at 50 ℃ and 60 ℃ for 5-15 min. No death mice were found in mice injected intraperitoneally and administered intragastrically with Lactobacillus L-102 and L-76. Data indicated that Lactobacillus amylovorus L-102 and Lactobacillus johnsonii L-76 have potential probiotic characteristics and could develop into feeding probiotic lactic acid bacteria for swine industry.

2021 Vol. 43 (6): 734-740 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1174KB] ( 0 )
741 GUO Ziyi,REN Xiaohang,DU Rui,LI Jianming,SHI Kun,DIAO Naichao,ZONG Ying
Development of qPCR Assay for Detecting Brucella in Velvet Antler and Deer Blood Hot!

In order to develop a detection method for diagnosing Brucella in velvet antler and deer blood rapidly, and to ensure the safety of related deer products used for food and medicine, primers and probes were designed and synthesized on the base of the specific gene IS711 of Brucella. A realtime fluorescence quantitative PCR method was established. The reaction conditions were optimized and a standard kinetic curve, Y=-3.14X+37.62,R2=0.997,was drawn. The method has good reproducibility, sensitivity and specificity. The standard deviation of Ct value for intragroup and intergroup reproducibility tests is less than 0.5, the variation coefficients are all less than 2%, and the minimum detectable copy number is 2.65×101Copies/μL, with good specificity for Brucella abortus IS711 gene. The results showed that the method is sensitive to target gene detection and can be used for the detection of fresh velvet antler, deer blood and other related samples. The method can also be used for the qualitative and quantitative detection of Brucella, providing an important technical guarantee for the quality and safety assessment of related deer products. 

2021 Vol. 43 (6): 741-746 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 3204KB] ( 0 )
吉林农业大学学报
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Copyright 2009 Journal of Jilin Agricultural Univerisity
 No.2888 of Xincheng Dajie,Changchun City,Jilin Province(130118)
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