The production area and yield status, the annual price trend of fresh fruit and the price difference among regions of open field and greenhouse cultured blueberry in 2020 were summarized in this paper based on the investigation data of blueberry industry in China. According to the results of the investigation and analysis, the blueberry industry development, variety innovation and selection, and production region layout were also suggested.
Plant protection plays an important role in ensuring national food security and effective supply of important agricultural products. However, longterm excessive use of chemical pesticides not only increases production costs, but also affects the quality of agricultural products and the ecological environment. This article summarized the green technical path of controlling crop diseases and insect pests, reviewed the history and performance of green control techniques in Jilin province, looked forward to the new thinking and practice of green prevention and control against pests in Jilin province in the new period, and put forward suggestions for promoting agriculture, sustainable green development and making new achievements in Jilin province.
The maize inbred line B73 was soaked with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) at different concentrations, and the methylationsensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique was used to analyze the DNA methylation patterns and levels under NaCl stress. The results showed that the methylation sensitive amplification polymorphisms of each experimental group were 70.94%, 68.96%, and 71.77%, respectively. The methylation sensitive amplification monomorphisms of the experimental groups were 29.06%, 31.04%, and 28.23%, respectively. When the concentration of 5-ALA was 0.05 mg/L, the total methylation rate decreased by 2.87%, the hemimethylation rate decreased by 20.29%, and the whole methylation rate decreased by 18.72%. When the concentration of 5-ALA was 0.10 mg/L, the total methylation rate decreased by 5.13%, the hemimethylation rate decreased by 19.15%, and the whole methylation rate decreased by 20.32%. When the concentration of 5-ALA was 0.50 mg/L, the total methylation rate decreased by 4.82%, the hemimethylation rate decreased by 20.96%, and the whole methylation rate decreased by 20.72%.This methylation phenomenon improved the salt resistance of maize.
The paper mainly illuminated the effects of different corn and soybean intercropping modes on crop yield, water utilization rate and interspecies competition. Five intercropping treatments were designed, which were 4∶2（four rows of corn, two rows of soybean), 3∶2（three rows of corn, two rows of soybean), 2∶1 (two rows of corn, one row of soybean), monocropping corn and monocropping soybean. Experimental results show that compared with monocropping, corn and soybean intercropping has significant advantages in yield, land equivalent ratio and water use efficiency of corn. The land equivalent ratio (LER) of intercropping system is greater than 1. The 4∶2 land equivalent ratio is above 3∶2, 2∶1. The competitiveness of corn with soybean is greater than 0. Their order is 4∶2>2∶1>3∶2. In terms of crop water consumption, water consumption and water use efficiency of intercropping corn during the whole growth period are higher than those of monocropping corn. Water consumption of intercropping soybean is lower than that of monocropping soybean, and water use efficiency of intercropping corn is higher than that of monocropping corn. Intercropping can significantly increase grain yield of corn. Compared with monocropping, intercropping corn yield is increased by an average of 157%, and intercropping soybean yield is decreased by 203%. Among them, 4∶2 treatment group is the best in terms of yield performance. The results show that corn and soybean intercropping has obvious land and yield advantages, and 4∶2 mode is the best.
Response of Leaves of Weedy Rice and Its Hybrid Offspring to Light and CO2 and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Characteristics
To understand the response of weedy rice and its hybrid line (F12) to light andCO2 and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, the responses of net photosynthetic rate and relative electron transfer rate to light intensity and leaf chamberCO2concentration and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of weedy rice, cultivated rice and their hybrid lines (F12) were measured by photosynthetic analyzer and chlorophyll fluorescence analyzer. Light saturation point, light compensation point,CO2 saturation point,CO2 compensation point, apparent quantum efficiency, carboxylation efficiency, photochemical efficiency and electron transfer rate were calculated by rectangular hyperbolic model fitting method. The results showed that light saturation point, CO2saturation point and apparent quantum efficiency of cultivated rice were better than those of weedy rice and its hybrid progeny, while light compensation point, CO2 compensation point and apparent carboxylation rate of weedy rice were better than those of cultivated rice and its hybrid progeny. In the photoreaction process of chlorophyll PSⅡ system, light energy utilization efficiency and photosynthetic rate index of weedy rice were better than those of cultivated rice, indicating that weedy rice has certain value in the utilization of rice germplasm resources.
In order to solve the problem of quinoa lodging, and improve the yield of quinoa, single factor completely random block sum and orthogonal experimental design were used to study the effects of three plant growth regulators (Chlormequat, Paclobutrazol and DPC) on plant height, stem diameter and yield components of quinoa. The results showed that the inhibition effect of plant height was the best with 15% polyprazole sprayed at 15 times of the guideline dose at 15 days after emergence. The coarsening effect of stem thickness was the best with 10% DPC sprayed at 10 times of the guideline dose at 25 days after emergence. At 15 d after emergence, 15% polyprazole at 15 times of the recommended dose had the best effect on increasing primary branches. The best combination of increasing grain weight per plant and increasing grain number per plant was to apply 10% DPC at 10 times of the guideline dose at 25 d after emergence. This shows that all the three kinds of plant growth regulator could decrease plant height, increase stem thickness, significantly increase primary branch number and grain weight per plant. It promotes the increase of grain number per plant of quinoa.
C2H2type zinc finger transcription factors play significant roles in the growth and development of plant, animal and some fiungi, but their function remains obscure in Lenzites gibbosa. L. gibbosa mycelia were extracted and sequenced by transcriptome analysis after growing on sawdust at different times to support mycelial growth of L. gibbosa in a nutrient matrix. Data bases used for analysis were the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotation, the Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation. We screened out some C2H2type zinc finger genes related to the growth and development of L. gibbosa, and GO pathway enrichment and realtime fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis were performed for the differentially expressed genes. The COG analysis showed that the differential genes were related to replication, recombination and repair function. GO enrichment analysis showed that most of the differential genes were significantly enriched in cellular process, cell part and binding. By comparing the significantly expressed genes with KEGG database, 35 annotated sequenced were obtained, and 4 primary metabolic pathways were annotated. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched in protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum pathway, which showed that protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum pathway was closely related to the growth and development of L. gibbosa. Under the condition of sawdust induction, the relative expression of 9406 gene increased with the prolongation of time. The relative expression of 11332, 7835, and 5947 genes increased firstly and then decreased. The relative expression of 11819 and 4346 genes increased at the beginning, continuously declined, and then gradually recovered. The relative expression of 3913 and 5738 genes decreased at the beginning, continuously increased, and then gradually declined. The results have important reference value for the study of mycelium growth and lay a foundation for the further study of the function and mechanism of the key genes of lignocellulosic degradation.
Oil body protein (oleosin) is a kind of storage protein in plants, whose main function is to maintain the stability of oil and to store lipid. Through bioinformatics methods, this study predicted and analyzed the physicochemical properties and structural characteristics of 12 members of the Glycine Max oleosin (Gmole) gene family, and established an evolutionary tree. The results show that the 12 members are distributed on 8 chromosomes of soybean, and there are no genetic clusters. The isoelectric points are between 5.08-5.18. According to the relative molecular mass, the 12 members can be divided into two types: H type and L type. The members of the Gmole gene family all have highly conserved hydrophobic regions and proline node structures, which are supposed to be the main structures of oil body protein to anchor oil body. There are 2-3 transmembrane structures in the conserved region of amino acid sequence of Gmole gene family members, which suggests that the structures of U-probe anchored oil body could be formed. In gmole gene family, the tertiary structure of Gmole8 has no helix, and other members are single helix or double helix. The results of cluster analysis suggest that Gmole1, Gmole2, Gmole3 and Gmole6 could change the content of oil components in soybean seeds.
The paper mainly illuminated the effects of different corn and soybean intercropping modes on crop yield, water utilization rate and interspecies competition. Five intercropping treatments were designed, which were 4∶2（four rows of corn, two rows of soybean), 3∶2（three rows of corn, two rows of soybean), 2∶1 (two rows of corn, one row of soybean), monocropping corn and monocropping soybean. Experimental results show that compared with monocropping, corn and soybean intercropping has significant advantages in yield, land equivalent ratio and water use efficiency of corn. The land equivalent ratio (LER) of intercropping system is greater than 1. The 4∶2 land equivalent ratio is above 3∶2, 2∶1. The competitiveness of corn with soybean is greater than 0. Their order is 4∶2>2∶1>3∶2. In terms of crop water consumption, water consumption and water use efficiency of intercropping corn during the whole growth period are higher than those of monocropping corn. Water consumption of intercropping soybean is lower than that of monocropping soybean, and water use efficiency of intercropping corn is higher than that of monocropping corn. Intercropping can significantly increase grain yield of corn. Compared with monocropping, intercropping corn yield is increased by an average of 15.7%, and intercropping soybean yield is decreased by 20.3%. Among them, 4∶2 treatment group is the best in terms of yield performance. The results show that corn and soybean intercropping has obvious land and yield advantages, and 4∶2 mode is the best.
The study aims to investigate whether ginsenosides can act as chemotactic substances in the process of Cylindrocarpon destructans and Fusarium solani infection. Plate method, spore suspension method and mycelial dry weight method were used to study the effects of panaxadiol aglycon, protopanaxadiol aglycon, Re and Rd of different concentration (500, 50, 5, 05 mg/L),pH (5, 6, 7, 8), temperature (20, 25, 30 ℃) and time (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 d) on Cylindrocarpon destructans and Fusarium solani. Panaxadiol aglycon, protopanaxadiol aglycon, Re and Rd had different chemotaxis effects on Cylindrocarpon destructans and Fusarium solani, and the optimal chemotaxis conditions were different. Under the optimal chemotaxis conditions, when the protopanaxadiol aglycon acted on Fusarium solani, the CMI was the highest, which was 1.200 0, and when the protopanaxadiol aglycon acted on Cylindrocarpon destructans, spore germination rate and dry weight of mycelium were the highest, which were 81.67% and 0.396 7 mg/mL, respectively. Cylindrocarpon destructans and Fusarium solani had different chemotactic responses to panaxadiol aglycon, protopanaxadiol aglycon, Re and Rd.
The absorption pharmacokinetics of total alkaloid solid dispersion of Pseudomonas cuspidatum in mice was studied by taking Pseudomonas cuspidatum and Pseudomonas cuspidatum as indexes, aiming to provide scientific basis for its further development and utilization. Eighty SPF Kunming mice were divided into 2 groups. The total alkaloids of rattan and its solid dispersion (SD) were given by gavage, respectively at the dose of 0.2 g/kg. A total of 12 blood sampling sites were set up, and the sample size of each site was 3 mice. All blood samples were deproteinized with perchloric acid and centrifuged. The contents of fibrin and jatrorrhizine in serum were determined by HPLC. The atrioventricular model was fitted with Das2.0. The absorption pharmacokinetic parameters and relative bioavailability of palmatine and jatrorrhizine were calculated. The results showed that Cmax of palmatine and jatrorrhizine in the original group was 1.28±0.18 and 0.95±0.07 mg/L, respectively; tmaxof both was 45 min; AUC was 331.85±48.46 and 263.12±23.28 mg/(L·min), respectively, and Cmax in SD group was 1.75±0.05 and 1.15±0.13 mg/L, respectively; tmax of both was 30 min; AUC was 428.60±47.25 and 287.50±8.57 mg/(L·min), respectively, the relative bioavailability of palmatine in SD group was 129.15%, and the relative bioavailability of jatrorrhizine was 109.27%. The results indicated that the total alkaloids of rattan could effectively improve the relative bioavailability of palmatine and jatrorrhizine when they are prepared as solid dispersion.
Soil erodibility factor (K) is an important parameter for slope soil erosion prediction. With the change of farming system, management mode and erosion intensity, there are great differences in organic matter content and mechanical composition of the arable soil, resulting in the change of K value. To improve the accuracy of soil loss prediction, it is necessary to clarify the evolution characteristics of K value, which will provide basis for the correction of K value. The analysis of K value of the arable soil in central and eastern Jilin province in 1994, 2011 and 2015 showed that the order of K value was black soil > chernozem > albic soil > dark brown forest soil, and the growth rate of K value was chernozem > black soil> albic soil > dark brown forest soil. From the perspective of threelevel regionalization of soil and water conservation, the distribution characteristics of K value were as follows: Northeast plain and hillock soil conservation area (1-3-1t) > Changbai mountain water quality maintenance and soil conservation area (1-2-3st) > Changbai mountain water conservation disaster reduction area (1-2-2 hz).
In view of the problem that the content of soluble salt, pH and ion (Na+) in soda saline alkali soil in Western Jilin province was high and that rice seedling cultivation can not be directly carried out, in this study, to realize the synchronization of direct rice seedling raising and improvement in soda alkaline soil (WK), the single application of amendments (aluminum sulfate, calcium sulfate, ferrous sulfate, and humic acid) and the combined application of the three inorganic amendments and humic acid were performed to evaluate soil salinity, alkalinity, soluble ion content and rice seedling growth and to select the optimum application rate of rice seedling raising in saline alkali soil. The results showed that: the single application of CaSO4·2H2O (1.8%) and the combined application of R3 (1.8% CaSO4·2H2O and 1% humic acid) had better effects. Compared with the control group, the treatment with CaSO4·2H2O (1.8%) reduced pH by 3.26, and the reduction rates of exchangeable sodium, CO3 2- and HCO3- were 78.72%, 100.00% and 79.79%, respectively. In the R3 treatment, pH value of alkaline soil decreased by 3.60, exchangeable sodium, CO3 2- and HCO3- were 98.19%, 100.00% and 78.72% lower than those of WK control. After the application of the amendments, the obstacle factors restricting the growth of rice were gradually eliminated by leaching during the cultivation period. The seedling rate and seedling height of rice seedlings were significantly improved. Among the treatments of the combined application, S9 (5% humic acid and 1.8% ferrous sulfate) had better seedling rate and seedling height. In the treatment, humic acid, fulvic acid and other substances improved the quality of rice seedlings. Combined with the analysis of seedling cost and the consideration of human health, the optimum application ratio of amendments, R9 (1.8%CaSO4·2H2O and 5% humic acid), was selected.
The phosphate solubilizing conditions of actinomycete strain SY7 were optimized, and its disease resistance and growth promoting activity were determined, so as to provide excellent strains for the development of efficient microbial fertilizers. The conditions of phosphate solubilization were optimized from five aspects: initial pH value, medium, carbon source, nitrogen source and phosphorus source. The siderophore secretion ability of the strain was identified by CAS solid medium, disease resistance was detected by confrontation culture method, and growth promoting ability was detected by plant culture test. The results showed that when glucose was used as carbon source, ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source, calcium phosphate as phosphorus source and pH=8, the phosphate solubilization effect was the best. The results showed that the strain was able to secrete siderophore to promote plant growth; it had obvious inhibitory effect on the pathogen of Fusarium moniliforme, Scenedesmophilus sp. and Fusarium graminearum; and it could effectively promote the growth of corn. It could not only transform a variety of insoluble phosphorus into available phosphorus, increase the content of available phosphorus in soil, but it also had a strong disease resistance and growth promoting effect, and established a theoretical basis for the development of phosphate solubilizing bacterial fertilizer in China.
Incubation experiments were conducted to study the release patterns of coated urea (CRU1; CRU2) with different membrane dosage in water and soils. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of medium and membrane dosage on nitrogen release from coated urea. Our results showed that, at 25 ℃ hydrostatic conditions, the release period of CRU1 and CRU2 was 30 days and 100 days, respectively. Under the soil culture conditions, the nutrient release period of CRU1 in planosol, black soil and chernozem was 37 days, 36 days and 34 days, respectively. While the nutrient release period of CRU2 on planosol, black soil and chernozem was 182 days, 209 days, and 213 days, respectively. The content of NO3--N in CRU1 in different types of soils first showed a trend of decreasing and then increasing, however, the content of NH4+-N increased first and then decreased. The contents of NO3--N andNH4+-N of CRU2 in different types of soil all showed a trend of being stable at first and then increased and then decreased. These results indicated that nitrogen release period of coated urea was significantly affected by the type of medium, the nitrogen release period in soil was significantly longer than that in water, and there were significant differences among different soil types. With the increase of the amount of membrane material, the nitrogen release period of coated urea increased obviously, and the change trend of inorganic nitrogen content in the medium also varied.
Bats are the reservoir hosts of numerous highconsequence pathogenic viruses with epizootic and zoonotic potential. In the present study, we report the findings of viral surveillance of a bat colony located in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. Blackbearded tomb bats (Taphozous melanopogon; n=95) were collected, and their lungs, rectal tissue and fecal contents were sequenced and analyzed by a viral metagenomic pipeline. The results revealed viral sequences of 17 families derived from mammals, arthropods, plants and bacteria. Furthermore, one strain of a novel orbivirus and five strains of a novel pegivirus were detected by virusspecific PCR, respectively. The orbivirus had a 10.5% (10/95) viral RNA positivity rate in lung tissues and 36.8% (35/95) in rectal tissue. Interestingly, eight bats were positive in both lung and rectal tissues. A partial genome sequence was recovered from lung tissue from one bat and partial segments encoding the RdRp, T2, CaP and OC2 structural proteins were obtained. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of RdRp revealed the orbivirus represents a novel species within the genus Orbivirus, with 45%-55% amino acid identity with previously described orbiviruses, and formed a unique lineage between the Culicoides, Phlebotominae and mosquitoborne orbivirus clades. To determine the viral titer of the pegiviruses, a qRT-PCR showed an extremely high prevalence rate: 78.9% (75/95) positivity in lung tissue with the highest viral titer detected of 8.56×104copies/mg. Partial genomic sequences were recovered from five pegiviruses positive bat lung samples and exhibited 98%-99% nucleotide sequence identity with one another. The pegivirus exhibited 76% nucleotide sequence identity with the Taphozous bat Pegivirus previously identified in Cameroon, and formed a novel lineage in Pegivirus clade G. The discovery of these novel orbiand pegiviruses in Taphozous melanopogon extends the existing knowledge of bat viromic diversity.
Copyright 2009 Journal of Jilin Agricultural Univerisity
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